Who Can Sell Medical Marijuana

Medical marijuana is now legal in fourteen US states and each one of these states has its own regime for distribution. If you want to start selling medical marijuana seeds in your own headshop or pharmacy you’ll still need to abide by the state rules. It is still a federal offence to sell or buy marijuana in the US so make sure all the correct protocols are in place, and only sell to approved patients whatever state you happen to be in.

Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Rhode Island

Although medical marijuana is legal in all of the above states, buying or selling marijuana is still very much against the law. Therefore, there is no legal way in which patients can procure the drug and how the patient gets hold of their marijuana seeds is strictly up to them. Patients that suffer from any of the symptoms for which medical marijuana is legalized are required to purchase a registry card which gives them a defence should they be caught red-handed with marijuana seeds on them. The registration card also requires a letter from a doctor, and any care-givers to medical marijuana patients will need to register for their own form of identification.

Arizona and New Mexico

In the Lone Star State and neighbouring New Mexico, medical marijuana sellers must apply for a license from the state. This allows them to sell or distribute marijuana seeds to patients that are in possession of a medical marijuana registry card.


Medical marijuana in the Golden State can only be sold through co-operations and collectives. Although California’s liberal stance meant that it was the first state to legalize medical marijuana, selling marijuana seeds is by no means as easy as it is in certain states. Cannabis collectives must abide by rules covering everything from parking laws to the use of licensed contractors. Landlords also present a problem when dealing with owning a dispensary and can make the arduous task even more problematic.


The Pine Tree State’s medical marijuana laws echo California’s and sellers must belong to an established co-operation or collective. Unlike California’s collectives, which differ in their city based jurisdiction of how much medical marijuana sellers can distribute, the laws in Maine do not address this issue, and medical marijuana patients are advised to use their own discretion when collecting marijuana seed prescriptions.

Maryland and Michigan

The sale and distribution of medical marijuana is illegal in Maryland. However, unlike Alaska and Colorado where patients are required to register and fill in an identification card, these rules don’t apply to Maryland. Maryland’s laws only provide an affirmative defence in court to medical marijuana patients, but with no predetermined list of what ailments can construe a need for medical marijuana, this is often shaky ground. The only real way someone in Maryland can become a medical marijuana patient is with a letter from a doctor – a process much easier said than done.

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In Vermont, sufferers of debilitating conditions, such as HIV, AIDS, MS and cancer are required to register with their doctors as medical marijuana patients. After receiving a registration card patients can grow their own marijuana seeds, although they can grow no more than two mature plants at a time.

Tips To Grow Hydroponics Indoor Gardening House Plants

Indoor Gardening is for everyone including hydroponics growers. Only the difference between hydroponics growers and other growers is that, hydroponics growers take help of artificial lighting and high-tech climate controlling equipments for their gardening and other gardeners do it without the help of lighting and other costlier equipments.

There are hundreds of varieties of house plants that can be grown without much care or specialized costlier equipments. These house plants are very useful as they generate fresh oxygen, filter air, and remove carbon dioxide from air, visitors get attracted to it.

Given below is a list of few indoor plants which can be grown easily and do not require much care.

1. Jade plant (Crassula argentea) – This indoor plant has very thick leaves and looks like a small tree. This plant grows well in presence of light so it would be beneficial to keep them in rooms with windows facing outside. This type of plant has very good growth so you should always take big pot for planting it.

2. Devil’s Ivy or Pothos (Scindapsus or Epipremnum) – This is a cascading vine plant and its beautiful shaped leaves have dark green color. It looks awesome when you put them in hanging baskets. This type of plant does not require much light and can be grown in dark room which does not have outside facing windows but it acquires good growth if you keep small grow light bulb in grow room.

3. Mother-in-law’s tongue/Snake plant/Bird’s-nest plant (Sansevieria) – The Mother-in-law’s tongue and Snake plant has many varieties. Basically these plants are tall in compare to Bird’s-nest plant. These plants can be grown very well in harsh extreme environmental conditions too. There is no need to repot this plant as it grows well in one pot. If the pot which has been used is very small or if the roots of the plant start coming out of the pot then only you should repot it.

4. Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum) – Whatever amount of light would be available to this plant, it would have good growth. Growing new spider plant is very easy, as main plant allows its miniature plants to grow on long hanging down stems. Spider plants roots can do well in small pots too, so no need to repot it. It looks beautiful if you grow them in hanging baskets.

5. Parlor palm (Chamaedorea elegans) – This plant is an exception to Palm tree; it does not require much sun light as all other palm tree requires. When grown indoor this plant can do well in low light and does not require much water. This plant can be grown to several feet height.

6. Rubber plant or Rubber tree (Ficus elastica) – Hobbyist growers love rubber plants because without taking much care rubber plants can be grown big in size with exceptional looks. This type of plants require good sun light so it’s better to grow them in room with a window or you should provide a skylight to them for at least two hours a day.

7. Christmas cactus (Zygocactus or Schlumbergera) – This plant is available in two types. The Easter cactus flowers and Christmas cactus flowers. The Easter cactus flowers are grown around Easter, and Christmas cactus flowers are grown in late autumn or early winter. In actual this plant is not from cactus family. It is originally from plant family named “succulents”. It requires moderate amount of water and few hours’ sunlight or artificial light for its good growth.

8. Dragon tree (Dracaena Marginata) – Dragon trees are found in many varieties. Few varieties can be grown very easily than others. These plants need very good amount of light and water. These plants can be grown four feet tall.

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A Small Greenhouse For Indoor or Outdoor Use

A small grow tent can be used indoors for a vegetable garden during the coldest days of winter. A small greenhouse can also work outdoors for starting your seedlings in early spring before the ground is ready for use. It can also be for extending your summer vegetable garden well into the winter months indoors. A greenhouse can also give you the opportunity to try new varieties of fruits and vegetables that you have never grown before.

A very small greenhouse, also referred to as a windowsill greenhouse, is a simple box that will sit on an extended kitchen window. Some of these windows are referred to as a greenhouse window because they extend beyond the walls of the house and have three window walls and a window on top. These greenhouses are also known as mini greenhouses and are available in starter kits which include grow lights, if you need them, the starting medium and include small containers. Many of these kits are available with transparent covers to keep in the moisture. You just need to remember that if you are placing it in a kitchen greenhouse window behind your sink that you need to be able to reach it for watering.

Another version of a small greenhouse is a unit of shelves that resemble an open bookshelf. This unit comes equipped with a grow light for each individual shelf and is classified as a grow rack. This style of “greenhouse” is not capable of controlling the temperature or the levels of humidity limiting you on what can be grown. This type of grow rack is good for adding extra lighting. There are other grow racks that are enclosed in plastic that will help control the humidity and temperature and also have grow lights for each shelf. These greenhouses come with 2, 3, or 4 shelves for using on kitchen counters or standing on the floor. These smaller greenhouses are good for starting vegetable seeds, flower seeds and for hardening off plants for transplanting in the backyard garden.

Patio grow houses, greenhouse structures that only take up about 18 x 36 inches, will fit on a back porch or patio that receives sufficient sunlight are also good for seed starting and hardening-off. These greenhouses generally have three shelves and come with double-walled glazing that seizes and retains the suns heat; they also come equipped with a zippered door for easy access and to allow air circulation.

A regular sized greenhouse is actually meant for the gardener that has a large piece of property with room to house such a large structure. The portable greenhouse gives the average gardener enough room to start their spring vegetable and flower gardens and if small enough it could be moved around if needed. You can also purchase a portable greenhouse that is heated if you are in a severe winter climate area. Instead of using an actual greenhouse structure using a cold frame around your plants will also work very well. A cold frame is just a box with a plastic door on top of the box which is placed over top of the plants that have already been planted. One thing to remember about a cold frame, it needs to be light enough so it can be lifted off once warmer temperatures arrive. The interiors of the portable greenhouse and the cold frame can be cooled just by opening the door. The cold frame will give you wind protection because they are so close to the ground.

Whereever you use a small greenhouse, inside or outside, you are still going to have a need for garden supplies. Planting trays are needed for starting seeds such as the old fashioned egg cartons or biodegradable pots. Some good hand tools such as trowels, clippers, hand rakes, small hoes, small shovels, and garden scissors will come in very handy. Protecting your hands from cuts and scrapes with a good pair of garden cloves is a must. And do not forget all the other musts for planting such as the led grow light, vegetable seeds, flower seeds, potting soil, compost or peat, fertilizer, and the planting stakes and cages that are needed for certain plants. Most of all enjoy gardening in your small greenhouse or cold frame.

In Wall Reef Aquarium

In Wall Reef Aquarium

How would you design an in-wall reef aquarium so that a chiller would not be needed? It requires a bit of improvisation, but I accomplished this for a new client.

I received a phone call from a lady who needed me to move the contents of her 90-gallon, in-wall reef aquarium to a free-standing, 120-gallon aquarium in her new home. The gentleman who bought her old house requested an estimate for bringing the 90-gallon back into commission as a reef aquarium. The tank wasn’t big, so I wanted to make sure that I made up for this by equipping it with great filtration and very bright lighting, all without causing too much heat to build up inside the cabinetry.

In Wall Reef Aquarium

In many cases, a chiller would be used to make certain the water temperature does not exceed 80° to 82°F, but not only was there zero space to add a chiller, it is also a huge mistake to put a chiller in a tight, enclosed, poorly ventilated space. A chiller dumps the heat that it removes to cool the water down, just like a window air conditioner, so it will seriously heat up the air in the cabinet. Also, the cooler the air it’s allowed to draw in, the more efficiently it will cool the water.


Right away I knew I was going to use LED aquarium light on this system. LED aquarium lights have come a long way since even a couple of years ago, and using T5 fluorescents or metal halides wouldn’t have worked because too much heat would have been created inside the cabinetry. LEDs do produce some heat, but much less than either of the aforementioned light sources. When left on for an hour, a 150-watt metal halide bulb would burn your skin if touched, T5 fluorescents would be uncomfortably hot, and LED aquarium lighting would only be warm to the touch.


The former homeowner took all the filtration in the move, but that was fine because we had decided to upgrade anyway. For a year prior to setting up this reef system, I had been slowly adding solid carbon dosing to my clients’ saltwater fish-only and reef systems to great effect. Solid carbon dosing is a method by which biodegradable plastic-like pellets are fluidized in a media reactor. The material the pellets are made from acts as both food source and colonizing surface for beneficial bacteria that consume nitrate and phosphate on a 1:1 basis.

It is important to place the effluent from the media reactor that you are using to fluidize the bio-pellets close to the intake of a protein skimmer. The bacteria are sloughed off of the surfaces of the pellets as they collide and are easily picked up by the skimmer, thus removing them, along with the nitrate and phosphate they utilized from the system.

People trying solid carbon dosing for the first time in an established saltwater aquarium quickly notice that their protein skimmer pulls out more and darker skimmate once the bacteria have established themselves. This may take around a month depending on whether you use a bacterial booster or not. To feed the bio-pellet reactor, I plumbed a fitting to branch off of the main pump and used a small ball valve to regulate the flow.

Choosing an external main pump in this situation was easy, since it is very well known that submersible pumps transfer much more heat to the aquarium water than do those that are mounted outside of the sump (a sump is a glass or acrylic tank that sits underneath the aquarium and houses all the filtration). I sized the main pump, choosing one that was pressure rated rather than volume rated.

Most external water pumps have two versions: volume-rated pumps and pressure-rated pumps. The pressure-rated pumps are designed to handle more back pressure without losing as much pumping volume as a volume-rated pump will. I always use pressure-rated pumps if I know that I am going to branch off of the main line to power a media reactor, push through a chiller, or run through an ultraviolet sterilizer. I also intentionally chose a pump that would move a couple hundred more gallons per hour (gph) than was required for the aquarium turnover rate, because I would be diverting that amount to power the media reactor.

Sump and Skimmer

The protein skimmer I used was a venturi-driven model with a needle wheel impeller. I used a space-saver model in which the water pump that powers the skimmer is located underneath it. This way, it takes up very little space in the small, acrylic sump.

The built-in, submersible pump that powers this skimmer uses very little electricity, especially when compared to older skimmer types that utilize a large, high-pressure pump that would only create more heat for the system to deal with. The acrylic sump was custom made to fit exactly the space I needed under the aquarium. I had it built to exact specs by a local fish store.

I employed a 100-micron filter bag where tile drain pipe coming from the aquarium brings water into the sump. This is a great way to polish the aquarium water and remove small particles floating around in the water column. Once a week or as needed, this bag is taken outside, hosed out with a pressure nozzle on a garden hose, wrung out to remove excess tap water, and put back into place.

Evaporative Loss Top-Off

I equipped the aquarium with an automatic evaporation top-off system in order to maintain a constant water level in the sump. As water evaporates from the system, an equal amount of fresh water is put back into the system. A sensor located in the sump tells a small, submersible pump located in the top-off reservoir when to turn on or shut off depending where the water level is in relation to this sensor.

Maintaining a constant water level in the sump is important both for the protein skimmer to work efficiently and to ensure that the main pump does not run dry. I keep the reservoir filled with purified water (RO/DI) because when water evaporates, it leaves behind nearly all of the substances dissolved in it. These substances are known as TDS (total dissolved solids) and include minerals such as calcium and magnesium carbonate and sodium chloride.

When a saltwater aquarium loses volume due to evaporation, it is fresh water that you must add back into the system, not salt water. This highly purified water has next to no mineral content or pH buffering ability, so l have the top-off go through a kalkwasser (calcium hydroxide) stirrer before entering the system.

If aquarium evaporation is too high, it can be dangerous to run kalkwasser in line with your top-off. You don’t want to dose too much at one time, as it is a very caustic basic substance (pH of 12 after initial mixing with water). To prevent overdosing, I only keep about a tablespoon of calcium hydroxide in the stirrer at any given time. Between this and bi-weekly water changes (10 gallons at a time), all the necessary elements required by soft corals and large-polyped stony (LPS) corals are taken care of.

This system was designed to evaporate at a great rate because one of the best ways to cool water temperature down is through the use of fans blowing across the water surface, which causes massive evaporation. Besides the previously mentioned exhaust fan in the ceiling above the lights, I also ventilated the bottom cabinetry to help remove hot, humid air. I cut out a square in the drywall, installed a ventilation grate, and mounted a quiet, 4-inch fan that blows out of this grate.


Though no chiller was used to cool the water, a heater was necessary to keep the water temperature from dropping too low at night in the cooler months. Here in southeast Texas winters are not usually very cold, but we do experience temperature swings during the fall and winter that can catch an aquarium off guard and cause its inhabitants’ lower, making immune systems to lower, making them more susceptible to parasites and diseases.

Therefore, I use a heater as at safety net to ensure that the temperature does not get too low. I use an external heater controller instead of relying on the controls inside the heater. A heater is no place to skimp. When your aquarium contains several thousand dollars of sensitive corals and fish, you don’t want to leave things to chance.

Overview of Installation

By using energy-efficient LED aquarium lighting with a strong-yet-quiet bathroom exhaust fan mounted in the ceiling, external water pumps instead of submersible, and ventilating the cabinet below where the filtration is located, I was able to avoid installing a chiller or this system. The ambient temperature in the house stays around 76°, and the water temperature of the 90-gallon, in-wall reef averages 80° to 82°. To find out more, you can check out In Wall Reef Aquarium.

Is There Such a Thing as a Maintenance Free Aquarium

A maintenance free aquarium – no work at all! Just view and enjoy the coral colours and the various reef fish. Many or perhaps all aquarists would tend to call that aquatic heaven – maybe.

Is it possible though? Is there a way that the aquarist can design a marine system where, once all is settled and mature, there is nothing else to do?

The first thing is to compare the aquarium to the wild reef. Yes, there are the same kind of inhabitants in the aquarium as on the wild reef, just fewer of them. Also, there are far fewer species of livestock on the captive reef. So, there’s the first point – the wild reef has far greater diversity of life. The different species have their own niche on the wild reef, each having a food source. There are some overlaps of course but generally it is all very well organised. Nature has everything under control. The first problem that the aquarist is likely to face is in making sure that all potential difficulties are dealt with, from dealing with different forms of nuisance algae to having enough food for fish if kept.

So what if fish are not kept, just a reef with corals. This immediately makes the question of water quality easier to deal with, as the wastes from the fish are gone. In addition, there isn’t any need to feed the fish. So, if the aquarium filtration is excellent, such as live rock and a deep sand bed, will that remove maintenance?

The corals need looking at now. The hard corals generally need considerable light, but that isn’t a particular problem, with the availability of halide bulbs and the fast up and coming LED Aquarium lights. They also require a sufficient level of calcium, magnesium etc which has to be provided. So in comes the calcium reactor, which can supply calcium along with magnesium, and probably other minerals in traces, if the correct media is used. That solves that. Wait a minute though, the calcium reactor needs servicing on occasion, and also the media needs renewal periodically.

What about soft corals? These can exist with less light, fluorescent tubes often being employed. They also need less calcium. It is argued, from anecdotal reports, that the addition of iodine is good for soft coral growth and health, but as this is not scientifically proven (as far as I know) it will be ignored. There isn’t any absolute need to feed certain soft corals, they grow without it. So the maintenance free aquarium idea is intact at the moment.

The marine system is set up with a live rock reef, the live rock being in sufficient quantity. The rock filtration is backed up by a DSB. The system is stocked with hardy soft corals. The lighting cycle is controlled by electric timers. There is a very efficient and properly set up protein skimmer in use.

The aquarist watches carefully until he/she sees what type of algae appears. Snails are introduced to the aquarium to control this. This is successful.

An automatic top-up system using reverse osmosis water is employed. Hey, we’re maintenance free!

No we’re not. Film algae appears on the viewing glasses and the snails attack it but have no ability to ‘keep it clean,’ efficient as they might be. The DSB needs feeding to maintain the population of minute life forms which keep it healthy. The reef rocks need to be ‘de-dusted’ occasionally. The lighting tubes need to be replaced periodically. Seawater quality, so important, needs to be tested routinely.

Seawater quality brings up another question, and this is aquarium water changes. The seawater change amount varies system to system, aquarists knowing, after a period, what the system requires. All aquarists change seawater though. There have been those who have experimented (or tried to save money) without, but problems of various sorts have arisen.

So they need to be done.

No, a marine aquarium system cannot be maintenance free. The move towards natural methods such as live rock, DSB’s, algae filtration etc has improved things immensely. Captive reefs run much closer to how Nature intended nowadays. Add to this the use of highly efficient protein skimmers, calcium reactors, electronically controlled seawater circulation, controlled temperature, accurate water level top-up systems, anti-nitrate reactors, anti- phosphate reactors, sophisticated lighting systems etc and the system is indeed looking after itself to a considerable extent. Correct livestock in the aquarium, not only corals but snails etc enhances self support. Experimentation by advanced aquarists goes on and in the future other innovative methods of control and aquarium maintenance may come into use.

A completely hands-off system will never materialise in my view. There is always something there that ‘needs doing,’ be it a water change, cleaning the glass free of algae, changing media etc. Thank goodness I say. One of the joys of this hobby is the knowledge that actions are helping maintain such interesting life.

Also, in the extremely unlikely event that a hands-off system did materialize, what aquarist could keep their hands off?

Preventive Measures While Dealing with Indoor Plants in Brisbane

We all know and aware that all plants needs proper fertilizer, water and the sunlight for their growth. Many plants can grow without the sunlight rays and many plants can live without water for 10-15 days. All plants have different breeds and requirements for their survival especially for the indoor plants; so it is very important to have a deep knowledge about the indoor plants and the climatic culture in which the plant can survive. As we aware of that we can’t change our house, direction and its design so we need to choose the appropriate space for the indoor plants from where the plant can grow properly.

First of all the climate of Brisbane is such that we can grow any plants. Its average temperature in summer is 25.4 C and in its winter 15.7 C.  So following are the precautionary measures for the Brisbane Indoor Plants –

Place a plant in such a way so that sunlight can reach towards it.

First of all think before you buy any of the indoor plants as per the space and the light in your house. If the plant is not getting enough light either it will die or becomes thin. So to avoid this problem it is better to buy plants that need medium light or else you need to provide led grow lights to the plant.

You can always place your indoor plants to outside; it is not a rule of thumb that you have to place indoor plants inside the house only.
Always use the room temperature water for watering your indoor plants and make sure that your plants are getting enough water for the growth. Always remember if your plant is very dry they will die and if they get excess water, roots will rot.
Occasionally give you plants a bath, it is not recommended that you need to give shower daily just that once or twice a month you need to give a bath with lukewarm water.
It is very important to keep your house airy so that fresh airs comes in so that indoor plants can improve the air quality of your household.
Make sure that your house is not over Smokey and always pay attention to your room temperatures during day and night and accordingly take care of your plant. Always treat plants like your baby give name to it so that you can always remember the name of the plant.
Fertilize your plant twice or thrice a month depending upon your plants requirement.

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Enhancing Flavor with Hydroponic Gardening

One of the many advantages of growing your own vegetables hydroponically is that your vegetables often taste better. The produce you get from the supermarket is often very bland for a number of reasons.

First, most farmers do not grow for taste, they grow for yield. They get paid just as much for a bland tomato as a delicious one so they would rather have a large, mediocre crop than a smaller, delicious tasting one. Also, the vegetables that you pick up at the market are usually picked long before they are ripe to allow more time for transport. Allowing a vegetable to ripen on the vine transfers more sugars from the plant to the vegetable itself, resulting in superior taste.

But even with these numerous advantages, many growers want to take steps to ensure that their crop will taste the very best once it comes time to eat it or cook with it in their kitchen. With a few simple adjustments, you can make sure you will enjoy all the flavor benefits of hydroponics growing.

Let their Be Light – The number one growing factor that will influence the flavor of your vegetables while hydroponic gardening will be light. Studies show that longer periods of light, about sixteen hours of light a day, promote the best flavor.

Keep an Eye on the Thermostat – Most vegetables can thrive in fairly warm environment, but do not make the mistake of thinking that it can’t get too hot in your grow room. Tomatoes, for example, if temperatures exceed eighty-two degrees, you will probably notice a decrease in yield as well as flavor. If your grow room is prone to getting too warm, invest in a couple of auxiliary fans to keep your plants at optimal temperatures.

Increase Nutrient Concentration – It might actually do your vegetables good to increase the nutrient concentration of your solution to a bit higher than what is typically recommended. A recent study on the connection between tomato flavor and nutrient concentration in a nutrient film technique system performed at the Massey University at New Zealand, found that changing the conductivity from 2 to 4 resulted in superior flavor. Other studies have also found improvements in flavor using a concentration as high as 10. You may want to experiment, increasing the nutrient concentration on a single plant first, so you can be more certain how such an adjustment will affect your crop.

Handle with Care – How your vegetables will taste isn’t just influenced by how you grow them, it can also be influenced by how you pick and store them. Make sure not to bruise your plants when it comes to be harvest time. Also, try not to refrigerate your vegetables if possible. Refrigeration destroys much of the flavor, even if it is done for a short period of time. For the best flavor, store them in your fruit bowl and eat them shortly after harvesting.

As always, if you notice that one of your plants is producing particularly excellent vegetables, take advantage of it by cloning it. To make this task easier, make sure to invest in some quality cloning gel and follow the instructions carefully.

Hydroponic Gardening – Different Forms

Hydroponic gardening is a procedure where plants, whether it be fruit or flowers and vegetables are cultivated in nutrient vitamin alternatives. This signifies that they aren’t grown in the soil, in the ground and don’t depend on sunlight to grow. Rather they grew in tents in the house or even inside the conservatory.

Hydroponic growing is now being widely used worldwide to grow crops. This type of gardening is much cleaner and does not depend on the climate to determine the potency of the produce. For instance when a famine has occurred a cultivator would have only has a weak if yet no yield at all but this procedure of gardening does not depend on water for vegetation since the water employed is recycled, therefore lowering water expenses.

When plants are grown hydroponically there’s a smaller risk of pest attack because there’s no ground pests or insects to dwell a reason that makes hydroponics farming a thoroughly sensible and helpful form of cultivating food.

With hydroponic more vegetation can be produced in a smaller area and doesn’t require the use of a big garden to produce crops. Hydroponic tents can be installed nearly anywhere and are available in various sizes and heights to suit your requirements.

Hydroponic can be employed in built up areas where gardening or farming isn’t feasible and is perfect for over inhabited nations where landscape is restricted.

Though hydroponic farming has great benefits it also needs a lot of care. It also needs special devices such as grow lights.

There’re 4 most commonly employed procedures of hydroponic farming and these include:

* Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) – in this procedure the roots remain damp persistently. The plants grow in conduits where a mineral solution is passed through in regular intervals. However this system will require regular flushing.

* Drip method – this procedure function with a timer that drops nutrient solution to the vegetations at a regular interval. As it’s dripping it supplies fresh nutrients, oxygen and water unlike the Nutrient Film Technique which recycles the same mineral.

*  Ebb & flow – this procedure wash out the plant containers and then permits them to drain which enables oxygen to be nourished to the base of the root. This procedure is also popularly known as flood and drain.

*  Passive system – this is a low maintenance form of hydroponic farming that doesn’t employ timers or pumps. This is a steady form of hydroponic but fits a busy lifestyle.

Underwater LED Aquarium Lights – Great at Night

Underwater LED Aquarium Lights Make Beautiful Moon Lights

Many people like to use spotlights or highlights directly underwater in their aquarium. It’s a great way to shine light into the nooks and crannies of your tank. Use underwater aquarium lights as unusual moonlights. See the nocturnal behavior of your fish. What do they get up to in the dark? It’s worth keeping an eye on their night time activities, as gentle lunar illumination helps promote spawning activities.

Totally Submersible Underwater Lights

Before we continue, let’s clear any confusion about what kind of aquarium lamps we are talking about. Elsewhere on the site you will find many articles about functional aquarium lighting, used to recreate sunlight to support life in your tank. This article is about submersible units kept permanently underwater. These products have the label submersible or underwater products.

LED Underwater Lights for Aquariums

Advances in LEDs made some exciting underwater aquarium lights available. LEDs are much better for fish tanks than the old incandescent bulbs. Colored bulbs are still useful for pond lighting, but they are a pain to use in tanks, because they generate heat, and they are so big -they are difficult to conceal.

For Decorative Purposes

Underwater LED lights are perfect submersible lights. Thin strips of LEDs you can place at the rear of your tank for a very subtle lighting effect. Please note, these lighting systems are not designed to fully illuminate the tank like your above-tank lighting. Underwater aquarium lights provide small area highlights, and low level nocturnal light. They are great as a nightlight for your room.

Automatic Night Lights

Before you buy any underwater fish tanks lights, check the length of the cord, and make sure it will reach your power supply easily. Cheap underwater lights don’t come with a switch, only a plug. To enjoy the underwater lights fully, get an automatic timer. These are plugs that power the lights on and off according to the times you set. If you haven’t already got one, use one to control your main lighting too.

Underwater tank lights can be fixed in place to the glass bottom with suction cups. If you don’t want it half buried in substrate, you can fix it yourself – we use plastic handy ties. Some aggressive fish will give them abuse, our cichlids took a keen interest in them. Take care if you have bigger fish, you don’t want them cutting through the cord.

Flexible LED Strips

One particular underwater aquarium light that attracts a lot of attention is the flexible LED strip. This product can be bent and flexed into any shape, so you can weave it around obstacles and fit it into the tightest of space in your tank. These things are cool little light strips – we use them outside of the aquarium as funky night lights on our porch!

Combined Light and Air Wands

Underwater aquarium lights have boomed in popularity now affordable LED’s have come onto the market. One of the biggest applications is LED air stones. Combine your functional air bubbler with a nice decorative colored light. There are many LED air stones to choose from. Look for multiple colors, different color change speed. Most of the LED air stones are wand shaped. This is a useful format for artfully concealing it behind your tank scenery. Another format is the bubble ring.

Hidden Lighting Keeps It Natural Looking

Not every aquarium owner appreciates these underwater lights, as they strive for the most natural look. Modern LED lights are so small and thin, the underwater lighting can be completely hidden, just leaving the subtly moonshine effects. Underwater aquarium lighting can be a great way to add interest to your tank. Enjoy the aquatic scene night and day,with a cool underwater night light.

Guide For Build An Indoor Grow Room

With an indoor grow room systems you will be able to cultivate flowers, herbs or vegetables inside and at any time of year. If you have considered growing indoors now is an excellent time to get started.

If you have considered growing indoors, You can start your seeds  at home, a gardener has a chance to grow unusual and not those popular plants, many of which can rarely be found in the garden centers. Indoor growing systems have been used to raise a variety of different plant and flower species successful. Indoor systems are known for producing high quality growth very quickly because they permit growers significant control of the growing environment.

Before you build your grow room and start growing there are a few things you should keep in mind. All you need to do is build a simple grow room with good light and air exchange, add some good healthy stock and look after your plants well. Excellent results are easily achievable however you decide to grow. Whichever method of growing you choose (Hydroponics, Soil or Coco), following some simple standard methods and practices will give you a good base to develop from and add more advanced skills as you progress. The best way to make your indoor garden as efficient and easy as possible is to put some thought into your grow room. A well thought out and constructed grow room will make your life so much easier – so where do you start?

1. Decide which room in your home will be used as the grow room. Almost any space could be used for a grow room, from a small cupboard to a whole room, garage or attic space. You can either convert a whole room or cupboard into a grow room, or build a tent or chamber within a room to create an enclosed growing space.

2. Converting whole room. Ideally remove any carpet and line the floor with thick black/white reflective sheeting or seal with pond liner if possible leaks would cause you a problem. This will prevent mildew, mold, harbour bugsand bacteria growth from any potential water leakage.3. Air flow and circulation. Air flow and circulation are essential consideration for design of your grow room, as everything from temperature to humidity to plant respiration depends on your exhaust and intake system. The main consideration is that whatever area you choose you will have to give that area air exchange, provided usually by an extractor fan. As a general rule, the more lights you have the more air exchange you will require.

4.  Even if you have a small window or natural light source in your growing area you may want to block it off or light trap the area with reflective sheeting. Any natural light that gets to your plants during this lights of period could confuse the plant and affect its growth. Seal off windows with black plastic. Hang a section of black plastic in front of the door on the inside of the room as well. It should hang like a curtain to allow access, but prevent other light from entering the room.

5. Install the grow light system. This system should allow for physically raising and lowering the grow lights. For a one or two light set up a couple of normal double wall socket would be sufficient. Use chains or cables to ensure stability and durability. Do not use any flammable materials. Use a timer for your lighting system as well. recommend led grow light.

6. Air cooling. This will To help avoid heat problems, especially in summer. The very structure of a greenhouse allows for heat to build up. The sun coming through glass or plastic can heat an enclosed area quickly. By providing vents throughout the greenhouse, and fans that blow the heat toward the vents, you can help cool the air inside. Warm air rises, so having vents placed near the roof on either end of the greenhouse will Help alleviate excessive heat.

7. Place the grow tables beneath the lights. Your tables should include a drainage system and, if possible, a system to recycle excess water. A nearby water supply is vital as your plants may get very thirsty under all that light. We recommend tap water over rain water as it gives you a much cleaner and safer base liquid on which to build. Rain Water will already contain many elements and could also carry diseases or fungi that could harm your plant.

8. Use a timer for any pumps that will circulate water, such as those used in hydroponics systems. If you are using an irrigation or drip system, go with a timer to ensure even watering. . With hydroponics systems nutrient and pH problems can be eliminated, since the grower maintains a tight control over their concentration.

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